Alexander the Great


Introduction to Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great is one of the famous names in history, His name is associated with the history. History was recorded many important battles, despite his young age. He is called "the great" because of his military genius and his diplomatic skills in handling the varied populaces of the regions he conquered.

Who is Alexander the Great ?

Alexander the Great (Alexander III) was the son of Philip II, king of Macedonia.Alexander the Great was born in 356 BCE at Pella in Macedonia. Macedonia was in the northern part of ancient Greece. Being the heir of his father, Alexander was brought up with much care and attention. He was taught philosophy, poetry , history and fight. His main tutor was the Greek philosopher Aristotle. At the age of 16, Alexander became the co-regent of his father.  Alexander the Great teached the reading, writing, and to play the lyre by Lysimachus of Acarnania . 

After the death of his father (Philip II) in 336 BCE, Alexander succeeded his father to the throne of Greece. He followed the steps of his father and continued his Hellenic project and lead his army to conquer Asia. In 334 BCE, Alexander the Great conquered Persia and set campaigns which lasted for 10 years. He also invaded India and built about 20 cities all over the ancient world that bear his name "Alexandria", the most famous one is Alexandria in Egypt.

the history of the Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great and the Conquest of Egypt:

In the battle of Issos in November 333 BCE, Alexander the Great defeated Persian king Darius. After that, Alexander the Great was only 23 years old conquered Tyre in 332 after a siege that lasted for 7 months. After that, Alexander led his army and moved southwards to conquer Egypt. His army consisted of 40.000 soldiers. Alexander besieged Gaza for 2 months and finally conquered the city. From Gaza, the army of Alexander marched along for 7 days in the desert till they reached the border of the fortress of  PelusionAlexander the Great entered the place without any resistance.

 During that time, Egypt suffered from lack of troops which were led by the starap of Egypt to Issos and fell there. Mazakes, the leader of the remaining armed forces in Egypt became the satrap of Egypt after Issos. However, Mazakes could n't encounter any resistance and friendly met Alexander and handed the country over to him.

The Foundation of Alexandria:

By the beginning of 331 BCE, Alexander led limited number of troops and marched down along the Canopic branch of the Nile. Near the Egyptian village of Rhakotis on the Mediterranean Sea and Mariut lake, Alexander gave his orders to build the city of Alexandria. The city was designed by the architect Deinokrates of Rhodes to follow the grid system.
The foundation of the city was celebrated on the 25th of Tybi. Alexandria became the main gateway of Egypt on to the Mediterranean Sea. Alexandria connected the Nile country with the Mediterranean countries through various commercial and political relations.

Alexander's Death:

In spring 331 BCE, Alexander arranged a campaign from Memphis to continue campaigns against the Persians in the east.  Alexander reached as far as India. He conquered the Persian empire. In Susa, the capital of Persia, Alexander married the daughter of the Persian king Darius II. Eighty of Alexander's highly-ranked generals also married Persian women. This marriage was a political propaganda for Alexander's in the east.

In early 323 BCE, Alexander returned to Babylon and died suddenly on 10 June 323 BCE at the age of thirty-three. On his deathbed, Alexander proclaimed his desire to be buried in Ammoneion of Siwa. He gave his royal signet ring to the highest-ranking general and bodyguard Perdikkas. The great leader died without leaving an heir. His goofy half-brother Arrhidaios was not able to rule. His wife Roxane was still pregnant.